четверг, 13 мая 2010 г.

Cossacks of the Napoleonic Wars

Strength, organization and
deployment of the Cossacks
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Cossack regiment had a simple organization. It had colonel, called polkovnik (probably from Polish pulkovnik), small staff, and 5 squadrons or troops called sotnia. On paper the strength of single regiment was more than 500 men. In the field hovewer there were only 300-450 men in the ranks.

The most numerous, the regiments of Don Cossacks, were named after their commanders. The Ukrainian and other Cossacks were numbered and named according to their nationality or district.

Since 1799 the ranks for cossack officers had been regulated.

The Don Cossack regiment numbered 591 men: 18 officers, 10 uriadnik (NCOs) but in April 1812 increased to 22, 50 diesiatnik and 500 privates. There was only 1 non-combatant, the putzer (colonel's servant). Only the colonel had the right to bring a private wagon. For this reason each Cossack could have a second horse as a pack animal.

The NCO was the real soul of Cossack regiment. He owed his position from his service and his fame. If he became commander of a detachment then he sometimes changed in a tyrant for his subordinates; and he used his position to accumulate trophies and loot.

Each regiment of Don and Bug Cossacks carried 5 flags in various colors painted with religious pictures or martial emblems. Sisoiev-III's Regiment carried in addition a St.George flag. If a regiment returned to its homelands without its colour, it was dishonoured. The flags for the regiments of the Ural Cossacks were not recorded.

Each sotnia had muskets for 11 Cossacks trained as marksmen.

In 1802 in the Black Sea area were formed 10 regiments (and 10 foot cossack regiments).
Each regiment consisted of 5 sotnias.

Kalmuk In 1811 from the Kalmucks living in Astrakhan, Saratov, and Caucasus provinces and in the Don area were formed: 1st and 2nd Kalmuck Regiment, 1st and 2nd Stavropol Kalmuck Regiment, and 1st and 2nd Bashkir Regiment. Each regiment had 5 sotnias. The Kalmucks and Tartars were also accepted into the regiments of the Don Cossacks. In their ranks served approx. 8% Kalmucks and 1 % Tatars. According to Richard Riehn, in 1812 there were:
- 4 Tatar regiments
- 2 Kalmuk regiments
- 1 Chechen regiment
- 2 Bashkir regiments
Later were formed 2 Kalmuk and 18 Bashkir regiments.

In 1811 there were 2 Cossack horse batteries.
In 1812 a half-battery was formed (captured Turkish cannon barrels were used).

In summer 1812 from natives of two provinces, Kiev and Kamieniec Podolski, were formed 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Ukrainian Cossack Regiments. Each regiment had 8 squadrons (troops).

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Kalmuk


COSSACK REGIMENT

1 polkovnik (colonel)
1 podpolkovnik (colonel-lieutenant)
- his was present in less than half of all Don regiments
1 voiskovoi starshina
1 quartermaster - in the rank of sotnik (lieutenant)
1 polkovyi pisar also called kaznachei (regimental clerk, cashier)
2 pisar (clerks in the rank of NCO)
1 judge
1 putzer (colonel's servant, non-combatant)

I Sotnia (Troop)
called Right Flank Sotnia - or - Colonel's Sotnia
1 yesaul (captain), 1 sotnik (lieutenant) and 1 horunzhii (ensign)
4 uriadnik (NCOs), 10 diesiatnik, 100 privates
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II Sotnia (Troop)
1 yesaul (captain), 1 sotnik (lieutenant) and 1 horunzhii (ensign)
4 uriadnik (NCOs), 10 diesiatnik, 100 privates
::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: :::::

III Sotnia (Troop)
1 yesaul (captain), 1 sotnik (lieutenant) and 1 horunzhii (ensign)
4 uriadnik (NCOs), 10 diesiatnik, 100 privates
::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: :::::

IV Sotnia (Troop)
1 yesaul (captain), 1 sotnik (lieutenant) and 1 horunzhii (ensign)
4 uriadnik (NCOs), 10 diesiatnik, 100 privates
::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: :::::

V Sotnia (Troop)
called Left Flank Sotnia - or - Lieutenant-Colonel's Sotnia
1 yesaul (captain), 1 sotnik (lieutenant) and 1 horunzhii (ensign)
4 uriadnik (NCOs), 10 diesiatnik, 100 privates
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Two or three regiments (sometimes more) formed Cossack brigade. Cossack regiments and brigades were attached to the regular troops. They made life easier for the uhlans and hussars, as they did the scouting and patroling. There were also two or three Cossack corps composed of several brigades. (The Cossacks were rarely formed in divisions.) There were also several individual regiments assigned as escort to army headquarters.

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